Rcurl Download File From Ftp

FileMaker 16 supports only a fraction of the protocols and options included with cURL. You would then run the command: wget -i filename. command line tool for transferring data with URL syntax. This is deceptive, however, as cURL is an incredibly powerful tool depending on how you use it. com If curl can't identify the protocol being used, it will switch to http. As the name suggests, cURL is a command-line tool for transferring data with URLs. Instead of the big file itself only a list of filenames with their checksums (md5) are committed to the VCS. For example, a file can be uploaded to a remote FTP server using a Blue Coat. Install and Configure Dropbox Uploader on Linux. FileZilla is fully compatible with our hosting services. PHP: progress report on page while using cURL to download massive files - I have a function using cURL to download a massive file from another server to mine. Fetch Multiple Files at a time. Get files in your server in seconds! There are many times when you want a file on your Linux server from Internet or FTP server and you are on command line terminal!. The curl package provides bindings to the libcurl C library for R. I would like to use R to connect to the ftp-server and download whatever file is newest based on date. It downloads and uploads, you don’t need to know the command for fetching files over FTP nor HTTP, it just gets them. Also update your Download. But, the cURL command is not available on Microsoft Windows by default. The environment variable "HOME" is used to find the home directory. To download multiple files at once, just list the links one after the other:. 13) and my R can currently connect, as I have no problem using KEGGSOAP as instance. Here comes 7. Downloading file from FTP using cURL. Download files from internet using R Home Categories Tags My Tools About Leave message RSS 2013-11-25 | category RStudy | tag R Download a file. Get files in your server in seconds! There are many times when you want a file on your Linux server from Internet or FTP server and you are on command line terminal!. php ftp curl free download. Code snippet given here: For upload a file. I used the following code: url <-. GNU Wget is capable of traversing parts of the Web (or a single HTTP or FTP server), following links and directory structure. It is the most widely used command line utility to create compressed archive files (packages, source code, databases and so much more) that can be transferred easily from machine to another or over a network. However, with no parameters cURL will spew the download to standard out — definitely not what you want in the case of an ISO image. If you prefer binary/source packages, visit our SF. Download A Single File from FTP. In addition wget also supports retrieval through HTTP proxies. Under the [Settings] section, set CurlDebugDir to the path of an existing directory where Jitterbit processes have write permission. (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a document. If you need "just" to get files name, you can use VFS (get filesname step support VFS) :. file, but since I'm working with a password-protected site I opted to use the RCurl package. Also update your Download. The above command would download the HTML code from the curl site and save it as curl. Android™ Java Libraries. We use the -O option specify the FTP server URL. However, I am unable to find the wget command on OS X. net and i want to upload folder/file over FTP (TLS/SSL Explicit encryption) using Curl command from my asp. download_ftp_file will create directories if they do not exist and are used. Downloads files from HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP to the remote server. This function is a relatively simple wrapper for curlPerform which allows the caller to upload a file to an FTP server. CURLOPT_COOKIEJAR – this is the name of the file where cURL should save cookie information. cURL is a general purpose package that allows access to any URL-addressable resource. Explains how to download a file with curl HTTP/HTTPS/FTP/SFPT command line utility on a Linux, macOS, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, and Unix-like systems. This means you can write entire programs based on cURL, allowing you to base graphical download pograms on libcurl and get access to all of its functionality. If you know your file remote location you can download it with a single command order. There is no harm in downloading this file; however, if you prefer to not retrieve the index. Contribute to skgrange/threadr development by creating an account on GitHub. What would be the fastest way to recursively retrieve entire directory listing from an ftp server using wget/curl/whatever? I don't need to download any files, just directory and file names. Jack Carroll from Memphis was looking for curl resume Jamil Day found the answer to a search query curl resume write my paper curl resume curl resume download curl. Downloading files with wget, curl and ftp. The world's favorite secure FTP client is better than ever. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. supporting cookies, FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP etc. For example, in Terminal, you would do this to download a DMG file from some site:. I would like to achieve this without going into the subdirectory, using curl to download and then coming back to the current directory. My answer was, yes of course, very easy. curl is MIT. If you are downloading a file and lose your internet connection for some reason, cURL can resume the download where it left off: curl -O -C - https://domain. Shan February 12, I usually use the RCurl library to download files from basic ftp sites but I've never done it from an. You would then run the command: wget -i filename. curl is a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). file function, making it possible to download files over HTTPS on Windows, Mac OS X, and other Unix-like platforms. The FTP get and put commands only transfer single files. One of the most basic and common use cases for Wget is to download a file from the internet. Send POST request with the Curl command3. biz/faq/cur. curl uses libcurl which is a cross-platform library. To be clear, of course you can do much more with PowerShell and FTP. If you need "just" to get files name, you can use VFS (get filesname step support VFS) :. Dear list, I'm trying to download a text file directly from the internet using the RCurl package and the command getURL. Say you have a file you want to download. Download curl(x86-64) packages for CentOS, Fedora, Mageia, OpenMandriva, openSUSE, PCLinuxOS. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) has been around for many generations and has been used successfully for transfering files via FTP clients and numerous scripting languages. curl is the most powerful command in linux. The package supports retrieving data in-memory, downloading to disk, or streaming using the R “connection” interface. Download the first CD or DVD image file, write it using a CD/DVD recorder (or a USB stick on i386 and amd64 ports), and then reboot from that. Fortunately, the Git bash emulator for Windows (msysgit) includes a MinGW port of the awesome curl utility. zip file or. Is this possible using curl? Or should I use anything else. To use Dropbox Uploader, download the script and make it executable. no files were downloaded Thanks advance! | The UNIX and Linux Forums. Please put your feedback using comment which helps me to improve myself for next post. By default, if an environment variable _proxy is set on the target host, requests will be sent through that proxy. I've tried curl'ing the direct link, but that downloads it and posts the binary to my screen, and not a file. By default, if an environment variable _proxy is set on the target host, requests will be sent through that proxy. Access your site via FTP or your *hosting* control panel’s file manager and rename or delete that directory. I am new to asp. Download files from, or upload files to a FTP Server with or without authentication To access a protected FTP server with the curl command you need to use the -u flag with a username and password. The put command works the same way as the get command, so you can use mput to upload multiple files at the same time. Dear list, I'm trying to download a text file directly from the internet using the RCurl package and the command getURL. The second section explains some of the more complex program features. > >Hello everyone, > >Is it possible to download data from password-protected ftp sites? I saw >another thread with instructions for uploading files using RCurl, but I >could not find information for downloading them in the RCurl documentation. As file upload on S3 using API call requires parameters in specific format and debugging that is very cumbersome task, in that case we can use CURL request with the inputs for debugging. FreshPorts - new ports, applications. To use CURL as part of an event rule action, we need to first add it as an available Executable target on the Event Targets page. 1 MB on disk. gz), or the UNIX "compress" program (and have the extension *. Curl debugging can be used to turn on detailed trace of FTP and HTTP transfers. It is readily available to be used by your software. With SiteGround you get unlimited FTP access and unlimited FTP accounts. Many orchestration and automation processes will need to download content from external or internal sources over protocols like HTTP and FTP. XAMPP XAMPP is a very easy to install Apache Distribution for Linux, Solaris, Windows, and Mac OS X. PycURL is targeted at an advanced developer - if you need dozens of concurrent, fast and reliable connections or any of the sophisticated features listed above then PycURL is for you. Port details: R-cran-RCurl General network client interface for R 1. Here comes 7. Download with Invoke-WebRequest ^ To simply download a file through HTTP, you can use this command:. When used on an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the file size and last modification time only. list ftp site files using curl (not RCurl) in R. pdf), Text File (. These functions download one or more URIs (a. It's that easy. The following command will upload a file to a specific remote folder: # curl -T backup-file. [icon type="unix"]I know wget can resume a failed download. The command line BSD ftp utility that ships with OS X can be used to download files via HTTP as well as FTP. The program's installer file is commonly found as curl. R code for downloading files from a FTP site Here is present R code where you can download the files from an FTP (RCurl) # FTP # Download the files within a. There are multiple options in unix systems that will allow you to do that. Curl is bundled with most unix variations, but Mac users who want to use the wget trick will first need to grab wget for OS X in order for this to work, wget is a simple terminal utility used to download files from the web and ftp and it’s handy to have around for a variety of uses making it worthwhile to have anyway. Stack Exchange Network. Instead of using the computer through a graphical interface (sometimes referred to as a GUI), you can send commands through a command line interpreter (CLI). Partial file. If its not uploaded that script will send us alert that Today's file has not been uploaded, if its uploaded than it will download & move it to FileV3Files folder with date stamp. At its most basic you can use cURL to download a file from a remote server. But now I have solved the problem and because I haven't found any solution to my problem here, I'm sharing my approach. Downloading Multiple Files from an FTP Server File Using Libcurl I have used the following code to get to download all the files from the FTP Server Steps followed are: 1. So this is a post with a little information about how you can do a FTP Upload or a FTP Download using Powershell. [icon type="unix"]I know wget can resume a failed download. If the server side supports it, you can use the TLS version of these protocols with curl. Through FTP, a client can connect to a server, acquire a list of directories and files, and either download a file (that is, request a file from the server) or upload a file (that is, send the file a server to persist). When the remote machine asks for your loginname, you should type in the word anonymous. How can I download ZIP file with curl command? To download files in GitHub FTP and FTPS protocols. To get cURL for Windows 10, we will use git bash shell which provides useful unix command line tools for Windows. When a typical FTPES session begins, the client will connect to TCP/21 and issue the AUTH TLS or AUTH SSL command. Precompiled binaries for Windows. Curl utility is used for transfer data from or to a server using one of the supported protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, and FTP. e, "The Normal FTP:" stated above and for the SFTP you can use the 2nd command stated above "For SFTP:". One is for Web Deploy and another for FTP. Curl couldn't parse the 227-line the server sent. Download files using Curl. In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Curl on Ubuntu 18. Where should i look into ?. Let say, I wanna download a file from a ftp server by passing the username and password within one line of command, so I can put into my script. The FTP get and put commands only transfer single files. Go the the Event Targets page of the Event. Curl supports SSL certificates, HTTP POST, HTTP PUT, FTP License:Freeware | Downloads (139 ) curl tool Download. It is an ideal solution for teaching and learning URL interaction programming using FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, GOPHER, TELNET, DICT, FILE and LDAP. Which means if we have a text file on the system that contains this: open 10. I had problems to download zipped files from a ftp server. com:3128 download_URL Example:2 Limit data transfer rate. As file upload on S3 using API call requires parameters in specific format and debugging that is very cumbersome task, in that case we can use CURL request with the inputs for debugging. Using that command we can download one time at a time. My output (4 Replies). At first, we’ll explore an LibcURL example of simple file download. So, Today we learned how to use curl command line tool with ftp and sftp to transfer the file or data from local to ftp and sftp. 2 Hot Fix Analysis, Download and Deployment tool is a great utility for the SAS Admin to help keep their SAS environment up to date with all the latest hot fixes from SAS. Creating a FTP list of File getFTPList(string sHost, string sUser, string sPass, string sUri) { CURL *curl; CURLcode res; FILE *ftplister; stri. FTP([ host [, user [, passwd ]]]) method. My Googling suggests currently PowerShell doesn't natively have commandlets for FTP, so I've been trying modules and functions created by other gurus in my code to do the work. For background information about uploading files using FTP, and access to other FTP configuration guides, please read this article. curl uses libcurl which is a cross-platform library. via the RCurl package for R. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. The download was complete as the following was shown. Simple example to download a file from an FTP server. For ease of use we recommend that you add the directories from the cURL binaries to your PATH environment variable. The package supports retrieving data in-memory, downloading to disk, or streaming using the R “connection” interface. Read on to find out!. SCP and SFTP are both protocols that are built on top of SSH, a secure and encrypted data protocol that is similar to TLS but differs in a few important ways. Search Search. Peter Maclean I want to download and unzip many files from the FTP and create variables for year, month, and day for each file based on the naming mechanism. The Arduino Yún has a Linux computer on-board. Chocolatey integrates w/SCCM, Puppet, Chef, etc. I'm encountering a problem with the python ftp download. By default, if an environment variable _proxy is set on the target host, requests will be sent through that proxy. Chilkat Android™ Downloads. HTTP has HTTPS, FTP has FTPS, LDAP has LDAPS, POP3 has POP3S, IMAP has IMAPS and SMTP has SMTPS. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. share | improve this answer. (1 reply) What are "good" ways, within R, to download all files (perhaps including folders/directories?) from an FTP site and then save these files to a local hard drive?. Under the section for FTP make a note of the following values: publishUrl (hostname only) userName ————————–> This is the information you are looking for userPWD; Below is a publishsettings file from one of my test sites. But how do you do that when you are on a Windows machine? Let me introduce you to cURL, pronounced curl. you can do it by using curl. Instead of downloadi. The first section is a tutorial for beginners. It can be used together with gzip (tar. It’s analogous to the Dropbox Saver but works without any user interaction. Resume uncompleted downloads using Curl command5. Get all the HTTP HEAD responses from a list of urls in a file. There are two ways I can think of off the top of my head. Instead of the big file itself only a list of filenames with their checksums (md5) are committed to the VCS. How to use sftp protocol for file transferring. curl supports the -u, -Q and --ftp-account options that can be used to set up transfers through many FTP proxies. For fun, here's how to download Cygwin's setup file. curl -v -1 -o. you can do it by using curl. It's like mercurial largefile extension but independend of any VCS. Search Search. Because i can't find any docs about how to do this. I'm new to scripting. Bug 643656 - some FTP servers hang if curl closes the data connection too early. The FTP functions are used to open, login and close connections, as well as upload, download, rename, delete, and get information on files from file servers. The FTP get and put commands only transfer single files. cURL is a computer software project providing a library and command-line tool for transferring data using various protocols. Wget is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the background, while the user is not logged on. In this article, we saw how both curl and wget can download files from internet servers. file_local: File names for the local version of file_remote. 6 online and you can verify the checksum's signature file , which has. To download any file from FTP server First login to your FTP server, navigate to the directory and use the following command to download. zip) to the server; the zip file contains files and directories unzip the zip file on the server with the owner of the unzipped. The following command will upload a file to a specific remote folder: # curl -T backup-file. For example, a file can be uploaded to a remote FTP server using a Blue Coat. If the server side supports it, you can use the TLS version of these protocols with curl. FileMaker 16 supports only a fraction of the protocols and options included with cURL. 24 which is the subdirectory of the current diretory. Addin from Cake. Please put your feedback using comment which helps me to improve myself for next post. Basic usage of the curl command2. cURL is an easy to use file transfer application that utilizes a number of protocols to upload, download, delete, and list files on a remote file server. FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or similar) command failed. Task: Download Multiple Files. Download files from, or upload files to a FTP Server with or without authentication To access a protected FTP server with the curl command you need to use the -u flag with a username and password. libcurl is a free and easy-to-use client-side URL transfer library, supporting FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, TFTP, TELNET, DICT, FILE and LDAP. The Windows ftp command line client can be a pain to work with. The simply way how to download file is to use WebClient class and its method DownloadFile. Let's try it with a bigger file (this is the baby names file from the Social Security Administration) to see how the progress indicator animates:. Solved: Hi, So I'm used to transferring files between servers using scp and ftp. The FTP files for the latest version of an assembly may also be updated: to make the files conform to the latest specifications for a particular data format; to correct errors in conversion of the primary data from the NCBI databases into the various FTP file formats. i have Windows 2008 Server on which i store DB backups on daily basis. Therefore, the -O option. cURL is a command line tool to get or send data using URL syntax. The most common and popular tool that I’ve found for managing. Following command will download the index file of tutorialsoverflow. Can you explain me with a simple example on how I can download a remote file using curl? Are there any difference between curl and wget? Answer: On a high-level, both wget and curl are command line utilities that do the same thing. To get cURL for Windows 10, we will use git bash shell which provides useful unix command line tools for Windows. Using that command we can download one time at a time. FTP, the File Transfer Protocol, is probably the oldest network protocol that curl supports—it was created in the early 1970s. Many orchestration and automation processes will need to download content from external or internal sources over protocols like HTTP and FTP. I'm trying to use a cURL command to download a file from an FTP server to a local drive on my computer. For deep hierarchies this means very many commands. You can use the following command with FTP. If the file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will not start and curl will return with exit code 63. And to download these files and re-upload to another server can take a lot of time using FTP client such as Filezilla. the next download should begin only once previous one is finished. cURL is a command line tool for transferring data over a number of protocols. Any tool would be fine as long as it runs on Linux. libcurl is a free and easy-to-use client-side URL transfer library, supporting FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, TFTP, TELNET, DICT, FILE and LDAP. Different command line options and practical usage of curl illustrated. FTP Upload with Progress Event Callbacks; FTP Download with Progress Event Callbacks; Active and Passive Modes in FTP; Append to Existing File on FTP Server; FTP/SSL (AUTH SSL, TLS) Async FTP Progress Info; FTP using Explicit SSL/TLS (AUTH TLS, AUTH SSL, FTPES) FTP Bandwidth Throttle for Downloads. Hi Readers, Recently we have written as script to monitor if the particular file has been uploaded to secure FTP or not. Task: Download Multiple Files. txt and we can download a file with no user interaction. Downloading files from an implicit FTP. get() call and then process the txt file line by line (to html element for display on page). The command is designed to work without user interaction. To download a file using CURL from http or ftp or any other protocol, use the following command $ curl https://linuxtechlab. It is helpful if you're not getting all of the files. Download with PORT but use 192. You are currently viewing the SEQanswers forums as a guest, which limits your access. To open a connection to the FTP server, create an FTP server object using the ftplib. This site uses Akismet to reduce. We want your feedback! Note that we can't provide technical support on individual packages. curl App for Windows 10 PC: curl (2019) latest version free download for Windows 10. I want to download and unzip many files from the FTP and create variables for year, month, and day for each file based on the naming mechanism. The FTP files for the latest version of an assembly may also be updated: to make the files conform to the latest specifications for a particular data format; to correct errors in conversion of the primary data from the NCBI databases into the various FTP file formats. (1 reply) What are "good" ways, within R, to download all files (perhaps including folders/directories?) from an FTP site and then save these files to a local hard drive?. Download files using Curl. Curl is bundled with most unix variations, but Mac users who want to use the wget trick will first need to grab wget for OS X in order for this to work, wget is a simple terminal utility used to download files from the web and ftp and it’s handy to have around for a variety of uses making it worthwhile to have anyway. FTP([ host [, user [, passwd ]]]) method. Quick Tips. $ curl -o/O [url1] -o/O. The cURL command-line utility comes installed in most Unix Like operating systems, including Linux and Mac OS. At its most basic you can use cURL to download a file from a remote server. Has anybody used CURL to upload and download files over ftps using SSIS? If yes, can they throw some light on it?. It can also be used to download or upload files with supported options like proxy support, resume transfer and much more. Syntax: $ curl -O URL1 -O URL2. FileZilla is a powerful and free software for transferring files over the Internet. IN the other hand Wget only support FTP, HTTP and HTTPS. Files can be downloaded and uploaded to a server using cURL with FTP. The download was complete as the following was shown. destfile: a character string (or vector, see url) with the name where the downloaded file is saved. name/ --O homepage. The actual developer of the free software is Daniel Stenberg. The Bash Script curl https://davidwalsh. To try out /save_url, you’ll first need an OAuth access token, as you would to use any Core API endpoint. the next download should begin only once previous one is finished. The powerful curl command line tool can be used to download files from just about any remote server. curl supports SSL certificates, HTTP POST, HTTP PUT, FTP uploading, and HTTP form based upload. Android™ Java Libraries. One problem with the code as given is that the entire file will be read into memory, and then written out to the file; briefly, but for a moment your program could get very memory hungry. I have also tried with the "Secure FTP" software from windows using Implicit mode, which works fine while transfering files. If you have not used cURL, it is similar to wget. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Update your URL field in the first Text Input Tool to have the correct FTP URL/filename. The real problem for me though isn’t food aversions, it’s food cravings. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) has been around for many generations and has been used successfully for transferring files via FTP clients and numerous scripting languages. To download the homepage of example. For a very small file, that status display is not terribly helpful. Its ability to both download and upload files can be incorporated into other programs to support functions like streaming media. cURL is a command line tool that can be used to send or receive files. CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER is a simple way of copying a file from a remote server onto your own. Note: Using the above commands we can download files directly from FTP/SFTP server. Send POST request with the Curl command3. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got in the 227-line. Download files from internet using R Home Categories Tags My Tools About Leave message RSS 2013-11-25 | category RStudy | tag R Download a file. These functions download one or more URIs (a. Not all Windows FTP Clients are able to download files bigger than 2 GB. It's ideal for automating regular downloads in your own custom scripts. To try out /save_url, you’ll first need an OAuth access token, as you would to use any Core API endpoint. I want to be able to download new files only using wget, curl or windows built-in FTP doesn't matter. (HTTP/FTP/FILE) HTTP-servers feature the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a document. curl -v -1 -o. The curl package provides bindings to the libcurl C library for R. So write a text file of FTP commands to download file and then execute batch script. cURL can use many different protocols but defaults to HTTP if none is provided. You could packet-sniff to find out exactly what cURL is doing. Basic variant of the. Curl supports authentication and encryption. Which means if we have a text file on the system that contains this: open 10. Curl - Free download as PDF File (. To use Dropbox Uploader, download the script and make it executable. asc file) or a hash (. 11 Version of this port present on the latest quarterly branch. If you know a list of URLs to fetch, you can simply supply wget with an input file that contains a list of URLs. It also helps with web scraping, direct access to web resources, and even API data access. Send POST request with the Curl command3. Use "-i" option is for that purpose. Download files using Curl. Sequencing read and analysis data are available for download through FTP and Aspara protocols in their original format and for read data also in an archive generated fastq formats described here. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. For background information about uploading files using FTP, and access to other FTP configuration guides, please read this article. So, Today we learned how to use curl command line tool with ftp and sftp to transfer the file or data from local to ftp and sftp. Downloading files from the internet is something that almost every programmer will have to do at some point. For example, you could enter the following in your terminal (only valid for one session): set PATH=c:\;%PATH% Check the version of cURL. Accessing Rackspace Cloud Files Using cURL from Windows PC needs extra steps than from UNIX based OS. by SathiyaMoorthy. The three I most commonly use to establish my connections are Postman (a great testing app that resembles the Alteryx Download Tool configuration), cURL (a command line tool and one of the predominant HTTP/FTP transfer libraries), and everybody’s favorite software: Alteryx. Download with PORT but use 192. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. This new endpoint lets app developers upload files to Dropbox by just providing a URL, without having to download the file first. 2 Hot Fix Analysis, Download and Deployment tool is a great utility for the SAS Admin to help keep their SAS environment up to date with all the latest hot fixes from SAS. Where should i look into ?. If the server side supports it, you can use the TLS version of these protocols with curl. Explains how to download a file with curl HTTP/HTTPS/FTP/SFPT command line utility on a Linux, macOS, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, and Unix-like systems. com If curl can't identify the protocol being used, it will switch to http. I can’t do this with default ftp command! Curl provides you a way to access ftp server and download, upload files, listing directories and file, and you can write your routine into a script using curl. My ftp server runing on Ubuntu 14. File Transfer with cURL also supports authentication when connecting to a FTP server. FTP is the most widespread transfer protocol used to transfer files from one host to another over the Internet.